Did you know that the human eye is one of the most complex and intricate organs in the body? It is made up of components that perform different functions. For example, your cornea is responsible for protecting the eye from foreign objects, while your pupil allows light to enter the eye so it can be focused on the retina. A variety of disorders can affect your eyesight.
According to the World Health Organization 2021 report, at least 2.2 billion people worldwide are visually impaired. Nearly 1 billion, or almost half of these cases could have their vision impairment prevented or yet have to be addressed. It is important for patients to be aware of the signs and symptoms of common eye disorders in order to seek treatment promptly. In some cases, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent blindness.
One way to categorize eye disorders is by whether they are congenital or acquired. Another way to classify them is by what part of the eye they affect. The two main types are anterior and posterior.
Anterior eye disorders
Anterior means near or related to the cornea. These eye disorders such as cataracts, keratoconus, keratitis, iritis, iridocyclitis, uveitis, and scleritis, affect the cornea.
Posterior eye disorders
Posterior means near or related to the retina. These eye disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, macular degeneration, optic neuritis, papilledema, retinal detachment, retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and Stargardt’s disease, affect the retina.
If something happens to the important structures of the eye, it may affect your vision negatively. Luckily, there are many treatment options available that will improve or restore eyesight!
Let’s take a look at these common eye disorders and their treatments in detail:
Glaucoma is an eye disorder that causes damage to the optic nerve. Over time, this can lead to reduced peripheral vision and even complete blindness if left untreated. Symptoms of glaucoma include blurred vision, redness in the eye, eye pain, and so on. However, some do not experience any symptoms at all until significant damage has already occurred. The treatment for glaucoma varies depending on how severe it has become, but typically involves eye drops or surgery.
Cataracts form when the lens of the eye becomes cloudy, which limits light from getting to the retina. If left untreated, cataracts can progress until blindness occurs.
Most people with cataracts require surgery to replace their cloudy lenses with artificial ones known as intraocular lenses (IOLs). These IOLs typically consist of an acrylic lens that compensates for cataract distortion effects.
Conjunctivitis is an infection of the eye that can be either bacterial or viral. Symptoms include redness, swelling, and discharge from the eye, as well as increased light sensitivity, itchiness, and irritation. It can be treated with antibiotics if a bacterial cause is suspected or with antiviral medication for a viral infection.
Refractive error is an issue with the shape of the cornea or lens inside your eye that causes incoming light rays to not focus correctly on the retina. This leads to blurry vision at all distances. This eye disorder is categorized into two groups:
Also known as near-sightedness, myopia is a common vision disorder caused by the eye being slightly too long. Owing to this, incoming light focuses in front of the retina instead of on it. As a result, images become unfocused, which makes vision blurry at any distance.
There is no cure for myopia, but people with this condition can wear specially designed corrective lenses to help improve their eyes.
Hypermetropia is also known as far-sightedness because the eyeball grows longer, causing incoming light to focus behind the retina. This can cause blurry near vision, trouble seeing at a distance, and eye strain.
People with hypermetropia require glasses or contacts that contain diverging lenses to compensate for their poor eyesight.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Aging causes most people to develop dry AMD which occurs when cells in the retina produce little or no fluid that nourishes it. As a result, visual function worsens over time until blindness sets in completely. While this disease cannot be cured by medicine yet, medications can slow its progress by supplementing the body’s deficient levels.
It occurs due to the progressive damage done to the blood vessels of the retina. The condition may cause black spots, blurry vision, or blind spots. Diabetic retinopathy can be mild enough not to affect vision but severe enough to cause diabetic retinal leakage; it can also affect vision by diabetic retinal haemorrhaging (bleeding into the retina) or diabetic retinal edema (fluid building up in the retina).
Diabetic Retinopathy can be treated by laser photocoagulation. Here the laser beams destroy bleeding diabetic retinal vessels.
Diabetic retinopathy can be treated in a variety of ways, depending on the severity of the condition.
Amblyopia is more commonly known as “lazy eye.” It is often diagnosed in toddlers with few to no symptoms of poor sight during the early years of life. Symptoms of amblyopia include axial myopia (nearsightedness), strabismus, and amblyopic suppression. One possible treatment for amblyopia is called “patching.” In this treatment, amblyopes are made to wear an eye patch over their good eye for some time which enables their amblyopic eye to work.
If you’re experiencing any of the eye disorders above, seek a second opinion from a highly qualified eye specialist doctor at SeekMed. What’s more, you can ask for consultation or diagnosis services by searching “eye specialists near me” or “eye doctor near me” on the web.